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Tuesday, October 22, 2013

US State Capitols

ALABAMA STATE CAPITOL
Architect:  Stephen Decatur Button

Architecturally, the building is Greek Revival in style with some Beaux-Arts influences. The central core of the building, as well as the east wing to the rear of the structure, is three-stories over a below-grade basement. The north and south wings are two-stories over a raised basement. The front facade that is seen today is approximately 350 feet (110 m) wide and 119 feet (36 m) tall from ground level to the top of the lantern on the dome. - wikipedia





ALASKA STATE CAPITOL
Architect: James A. Wetmore

A competition was sponsored by the Juneau Capitol Planning Commission in 2004 to design a replacement building, but after controversy about the unconventional nature of the proposed designs, lack of support from the state government, and lack of funding, all plans were abandoned in 2005.  Alaska-born architect Marianne Cusato submitted a competing plan for a traditional Capitol that ganered much friendly attention.  Cusato's design involved a mixture of Federal architecture (main building) and Russian church architecture (dome and tower) to celebrate Alaska's American and Russian heritage.  - wikipedia





ARIZONA STATE CAPITOL
Architect: James Riely Gordon


The building is made largely from materials indigenous to Arizona, including malapai, granite, and copper dome.  The design is optimized for the desert climate of Arizona, with thick masonry walls that insulate the interior, skylights, and round "bullseye" clerestory windows to let out of the legislative chambers. - wikipedia





ARKANSAS STATE CAPITOL
Architect: George R. Mann


Construction took 16 years, from 1899 to 1915. The Capitol was built on the site of the state penitentiary and prisoners helped construct the building. They lived in a dormitory that was left on the Capitol grounds while construction was taking place. - wikipedia




CALIFORNIA STATE CAPITOL
Architect: M. Frederic Butler

The building is based on the U.S. Capitol building in Washington D.C.  The west facade ends in projecting bays, and a portico projects from the center of the building.  At the base of the portico, seven granite archways brace and support the porch above.  Eight fluted Corinthian columns line the portico.  A cornice supports the pediment above depicting Minerva surrounded by Education, Justice, Industry and Mining. - wikipedia






COLORADO STATE CAPITOL
Architect: Elijah E. Myers


The building is intentionally reminiscent of the United States Capitol. It was constructed in the 1890s from Colorado white granite, and opened for use in November 1894. The distinctive gold dome consists of real gold plate, first added in 1908, commemorating the Colorado Gold Rush. The building is part of Denver's Civic Center area. - wikipedia


Many of the windows are stained glass, depicting people or events related to the history of Colorado. The halls are decorated with portraits of every president of the United States. - wikipedia





CONNECTICUT STATE CAPITOL
Architect: Richard M. Upjohn with James G. Batterson



The building is one of the largest Eastlake Style buildings. The exterior is East Canaan, Connecticut marble and granite from Westerly, Rhode Island. The building is roughly rectangular, the interior spaces organized around two open interior courts that run vertically to large skylights. In the center is a third circular open rotunda beneath the dome. - wikipedia 




DELAWARE STATE CAPITOL
Architect: E. William Martin
The Delaware Legislative Hall is the state capitol building of Delaware located in the state capital of Dover on Martin Luther King, Jr.  Boulevard.  It houses the chambers and offices of the Delaware General Assembly. - wikipedia




FLORIDA STATE CAPITOL
Architect: Edward Durell Stone + Reynolds, Smith and Hills 

The Capitol is usually referred to as a twenty-two story building with a height of 345 feet. However, including the 3 underground floors, it is a 25 story building (6th floor is only accessible through the freight elevator). 




Threatened with demolition in the late 1970s when the new capitol was being built, the historic capitol was saved through citizens’ action led by Secretary of State Bruce Smathers and then wife Nancy McDowell. The efforts were successful and the building was restored to its 1902 appearance. Architectural highlights include the elaborate art glass dome, red and white striped awnings, and a representation of the Florida State Seal over the entry columns. - wikipedia 





GEORGIA STATE CAPITOL
Architect: Willoughby J. Edbrooke and Franklin P. Burnham

The front of the capitol faces west on Washington Street. The façade features a four-story portico, with stone pediment, supported by six Corinthian columns set on large stone piers. Georgia's coat of arms, with two figures on each side, is engraved on the pediment. The Capitol's interior represents the 19th century style of its time. 


It was among the earliest buildings to have elevators, centralized steam heat, and combination gas and electric lights. Classical pilasters and oak paneling are used throughout the building. The floors of the interior are made of marble from Pickens County, which still produces marble products today. - wikipedia






HAWAII STATE CAPITOL
Architect: Belt, Lemmon & Lo and John Carl Warnecke & Associates

The Hawaii State Capitol is an American adaptation of the Bauhaus style termed "Hawaiian international architecture". Unlike other state capitols modeled after the United States Capitol, the Hawaii State Capitol's distinct architectural features symbolize various natural aspects of Hawaii.  




ʻIolani Palace, in the capitol district of downtown Honolulu in the U.S. state of Hawaiʻi, is the only royal palace in the United States used as an official residence by a reigning monarch and is a National Historic Landmark listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Two monarchs governed from ʻIolani Palace: King Kalākaua and Queen Liliʻuokalani. After the monarchy was overthrown in 1893, the building was used as the capitol building for the Provisional Government, Republic, Territory, and State of Hawaiʻi until 1969. The palace was restored and opened to the public as a museum in 1978. - wikipedia



IDAHO STATE CAPITOL
Architect: John E. Tourtellotte + Charles Hummel

The architectural inspirations for the capitol’s design were Roman based, and a few examples are St. Peter’s in Rome, St. Paul's in London, and the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C. The most distinguishable feature to the capitol building is the dome. - wikipedia






ILLINOIS STATE CAPITOL
Architect: Alfred H. Piquenard

When the capitol was constructed, several empty shafts were included for the future installation of elevators. The original water-operated elevators were installed in 1887 and were sometimes the subject of ridicule by local newspapers as they were deemed inadequate for a building with the prestige of the State Capitol. It is unknown when the first electric elevators were installed, but the first mention of them occurs in 1939, when the legislature appropriated $30,000 for repair of the electric elevators. - wikipedia






INDIANA STATE CAPITOL
Architect: Edwin May 

During the 1988 renovation process, all of the statehouse's stonework, consisting of marble, granite, and limestone columns and blocks, was cleaned and polished. All of the buildings woodwork was repaired or replaced. Broken glass in the central dome skylight was replaced. The building's lighting was updated with new chandeliers based on the original designs, and most interior walls were repainted. The building was wired for a new data network to make the building ready for 21st-century technology. - wikipedia






IOWA STATE CAPITOL
Architect: John C. Cochrane, Alfred H. Piquenard

The architectural design of the Capitol, rectangular in form, with great windows and high ceilings, follows the traditional pattern of 19th century planning for public buildings. A modified and refined Renaissance style gives the impression of strength and dignity combined with utility. - wikipedia






KANSAS STATE CAPITOL
Architect : Edward Townsend Mix + John G. Haskell

The dome, at 304 ft (93 m), is taller than the 288 ft (88 m) United States Capitol dome although its diameter (50 ft (15 m)) is approximately half the national capitol (96 ft (29 m)). It is one of the few capitols in the United States that continues to offer tours that go to the top of the dome. - wikipedia








KENTUCKY STATE CAPITOL
Architect: Frank Mills Andrews

The Capitol used to be completely open during normal business hours, and local residents often used the marble hallways for exercise (the Frankfort equivalent of "mall walking"). Nowadays, anyone without proper state credentials must go through a metal detector. Security for the complex is provided by the Kentucky State Police. - wikipedia






LOUISIANA STATE CAPITOL
Architect: Weiss, Dreyfrouth and Sierth

At 450 feet (137 m) tall and with 34 stories, it is the tallest building in Baton Rouge, the seventh tallest building in Louisiana, and tallest capitol in the United States.

The landscaping of the grounds has azaleas, camellias and magnolias—the state flower of Louisiana. Many live oaks were also transported to Baton Rouge; a few oaks, which were already present and were incorporated into the gardens, are over 200 years old. - wikipedia





MAINE STATE CAPITOL
Architect: Charles Bulfinch

The Maine State House in Augusta, Maine is the state capitol of the State of Maine. The building was completed in 1832, one year after Augusta became the capital of Maine. Built using Maine granite, the State House was based on the design of the Massachusetts State House (Maine was formerly part of Massachusetts, and became a separate state in 1820).

The dome was surmounted by a statue of Minerva, the draped female figure of Wisdom, designed by W. Clark Noble of Gardiner, and made of copper overlaid with gold. The House of Representatives occupies the third and fourth floors of the north wing and the Senate chambers occupy similar quarters in the south wing. - wikipedia





MARYLAND STATE CAPITOL
Architect: Joseph Horatio Anderson 

The Maryland State House is located in Annapolis and is the oldest state capitol in continuous legislative use, dating to 1772.  The capitol has the distinction of being topped by the largest wooden dome in the United States constructed without nails. - wikipedia






MASSACHUSETTES STATE CAPITOL
Architect: Charles Bulfinch and Charles Brigham

The original wood dome, which leaked, was covered with copper in 1802 by Paul Revere's company. (Paul Revere was the first American to roll copper successfully into sheets in a commercially viable manner.)

The dome was first painted gray and then light yellow before being gilded with gold leaf in 1874. During World War II, the dome was painted once again, this time black or gray (depending on the source), to prevent reflection during blackouts and to protect the city and building from bombing attacks. In 1997, at a cost of more than $300,000, the dome was re-gilded, in 23k gold.

The dome is topped with a pine cone, symbolizing both the importance of Boston's lumber industry during early colonial times and of the state of Maine, which was a district of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts when the Bulfinch section of the building was completed. -wikipedia







MICHIGAN STATE CAPITOL
Architect: Elijah E. Myers

A few notable trees are located on the grounds of the Michigan State Capitol. An Eastern White Pine, the state tree of Michigan, is located in the front of the building. The Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Tree was planted in memory of Martin Luther King, Jr. in 1984. The oldest tree on the grounds is a catalpa that was present at the time the Capitol was dedicated in 1873. The American Forestry Association has certified that this catalpa is the largest living tree of its kind in the United States. The most recently dedicated tree is a blue spruce called "the Freedom Tree", planted in 1973 as a memorial to the Vietnam War's missing-in-action and prisoners of war.



The present capitol building, preceded by a temporary wood frame structure, was dedicated in January 1879, and is designed in a Neoclassical style, more specifically the Italianate style. The capitol was rededicated in 1992 after a three-year restoration project.

Myers used the central dome and wing design found in the United States Capitol in his design and subsequently went on to design two other state capitol buildings, the statehouses of Colorado State Capitol and Texas State Capitol, as well as the former territorial capitol building of Idaho, the most by any architect. - wikipedia






MINNESOTA STATE CAPITOL
Architect: Cass Gilbert

Any classical dome built since Michelangelo's must expect to be compared to it, and Gilbert's dome is a frank homage, with interesting differences. His drawings show that he originally planned a wider drum and, correspondingly, a more massive dome. The smaller dome as built could be criticized by some as too small. It is smaller than St. Peter's and has a simplified design: single columns round the upper lantern instead of double ones, for instance. -wikipedia
 



The building is set in a landscaped campus. Various monuments are to its sides and front. Behind, a bridge spans University Avenue, and in front others were later added over the sunken roadway of Interstate 94, thus preserving the sight lines. Set near the crest of a hill, from the Capitol steps a panoramic view of downtown St. Paul is presented. - wikipedia





MISSISSIPPI STATE CAPITOL
Architect :  Theodore C. Link and Barnard R. Green
The building, which is in the Beaux-Arts architectural style.  The walls of the rotunda are Italian white marble with a base of New York jet-black marble.  Eight large columns are art marble known as scagliola.  The dome interior contains 750 lights which illuminate the blindfolded female figure representing "Blind Justice" and four scenes: two Indians, a Spanish explorer and a Confiderate general.  Balustrades are cast iron and original to the building. - wikipedia









MISSOURI STATE CAPITOL
Architect :  Tracy and Swartwout

The building is symmetrical in plan, giving equal symbolic weight to both the House and Senate (though the interiors of the two chambers differ greatly). The style makes many historical references to the Capitol in Washington, D.C., as well as to Greek and Roman temples; however, the typical column capital is a unique variation on the Classic Corinthian Capital, replacing the acanthus leaves with local flora. - wikipedia








MONTANA STATE CAPITOL
Architect: Charles Emlen Bell and John Hackett Kent

A design competition for the building was conducted in 1896. The commission selected a design by George R. Mann as the winner. In 1897, after it was found that the Commission was planning to scam money from the building project, it was disbanded and a second Capitol Commission was convened. The new Commission abandoned Mann's plan as being too costly, and had a second design competition, won by Charles Emlen Bell and John Hackett Kent. While Mann's building was never built in Montana, it was selected later as the basic design for the Arkansas State Capitol. - wikipedia





NEBRASKA STATE CAPITOL
Architect: Bertham Goodhue

From the center of the base, a tower rises 362 feet (110 m), crowned by a gold-tiled dome. The spire—The Sower and its pedestal—add an additional 32 feet (9.8 m) to the building’s height. Common measurements list the capitol at 400 feet (120 m), making it the second-tallest U.S statehouse, surpassed only by the 450-foot (140 m) Louisiana State Capitol.









NEVADA STATE CAPITOL
Architect: Joseph Gosling

Abraham Curry, the founder of Carson City, reserved an area equivalent to four city blocks (10 acres or 4.04 ha) at the center of the town for the future state capitol. When the Capitol building was constructed in 1869, it was naturally located on "the plaza", which had, some ten or eleven years earlier, been designated for it, and given for that purpose. - wikipedia






NEW HAMPSHIRE STATE CAPITOL
Architect: Stuart Park 

The windows on the first floor are rectangular in shape, the second floor are arched and the third floor are square panels. An octagonal drum with large arched windows supports a golden dome with bull's-eye windows and supporting a small lantern. A statue of a huge gold-painted wooden war eagle looking to the left was raised in 1818. In 1957, it was replaced with an element-proof peace eagle statue looking to the right, with the original eagle given to the New Hampshire Historical Society. -wikipedia






NEW JERSEY STATE CAPITOL
Architect: Lewis Broome 

The State House is set not on a park-like campus, as are many state houses, rather it is integrated into an urban setting along historic State Street and is surrounded by other legislative buildings. The most scenic view of the building is from the west, near the Delaware River, which is the side dominated by the various additions. Viewed from the front on State Street, the dome is scarcely visible and there is little sense of the scale or design of the building. The current Office of the Governor section in the complex occupies the remaining portion of the original 1792 State House. - wikipedia






NEW MEXICO STATE CAPITOL
Architect : W. C. Kruger


The building was designed to resemble the Zia Sun Symbol when viewed from above, with four entrance wings that protrude from the main cylindrical volume.  Architecturally, the Capitol is a blend of New Mexico Territorial Revival style and neoclassical influences.  Above each entrance is a stone carving of the State Seal of New Mexcio.  The building has four levels, one of which is below ground. - wikipedia







NEW YORK STATE CAPITOL
Architect: Thomas Fuller, Leopold Eidlitz, Henry Hobson Richardson, Isaac G. Perry

The central open court is dominated by a shaft intended to support a massive dome. The dome and tower were never completed, as it was found that the weight of the building was already causing stress fractures. - wikipedia






NORTH CAROLINA STATE CAPITOL
Architect:  multiple

The cornerstone of the Greek Revival building was laid with Masonic honors by the Grand Master of the State Simmons Jones Baker on July 4, 1833. Construction was completed in 1840. It was designed primarily by the architectural firm of Ithiel Town and Alexander Jackson Davis. - wikipedia







NORTH DAKOTA CAPITOL
Architect : Joseph Bell DeRemer and W.F. Kurke


The many windows on tower of the capitol building have been and are still used for several ongoing traditions.  During the Christmas season, red and green shades are drawn over the windows and lights are turned on in certain offices to make a pattern that resembles a Christmas tree.  During the New Year's Eve, certain office lights are turned on to spell out the new year; the first two numbers of the new year are given on the top half, and the last two numbers on the bottom.  This tradition began during the 1970's and is now done on all four sides of the building; the Christmas tree tradition began as early as the 1940s. - wikipedia






OHIO STATE CAPITOL
Architect : Multiple

The Ohio Statehouse has been termed a supreme example of Greek Revival style. It is not patterned on one single building, but is a combination of stylistic elements from Greek sources, melded with contemporary needs and functions. The cupola shows direct influence by the Tholos of Delphi, a circular temple built about 360 BC. The Parthenon of Athens is also an influence. No ancient Greek building would have contained windows, but they were a major part of Greek Revival for a more practical reason: before electric light, sunlight was the major source of illumination. - wikipedia







OKLAHOMA STATE CAPITOL
Architect: Frankfurt-Short-Bruzza

The state capitol complex is famous for its oil wells and remains the only state capitol grounds in the United States with active oil rigs. The capitol building is directly atop the Oklahoma City Oil Field.

The sculpture in front of the capitol is Allan Houser’s tribute to Native Americans, As Long As the Waters Flow, dedicated on June 4, 1989. As Long As the Waters Flow, refers to President Andrew Jackson’s vow to Native Americans that they shall posses their land “as long as the grass grows and the rivers run.” The fifteen-foot bronze statue exudes Houser’s artistic style. Lacking intricate detailing, the large solid planes among the surface denote strength within an everlasting presence. Her traditional attire is complete with an eagle feather fan, a sacred symbol revered by Native American cultures. - wikipedia







OREGON STATE CAPITOL
Architect: Trowbridge & Livingston

Chosen from 123 entries in a countrywide competition, the design of the new building deviated from the normal design of state capitol buildings. The design was labeled a combination of Egyptian simplicity and Greek refinement. Overall it is Art Deco in style, and is one of only three state capitols in the United States constructed in that architectural style. - wikipedia




The Oregon Capitol Mall Sprague Fountain (shown below) complements the Cherry trees in full blown during summer season.





PENNSYLVANIA STATE CAPITOL
Architect: Joseph Miller Huston

Between 1985 and 1987, scaffolding was erected in the rotunda and the murals removed for restoration. The statue atop the capitol dome was removed for restoration via helicopter in the summer of 1998, being returned in September of the same year. It was decided to restore the Senate Chamber after it was flooded with 26,000 US gallons (98,000 L; 22,000 imp gal) of water on February 14, 1999. 


After its completion, the capitol project was the subject of a graft scandal. The construction and subsequent furnishing cost three times more than the General Assembly had appropriated for the project. Huston and four others were convicted of graft in relation to costs of the total project. - wikipedia 






RHODE ISLAND STATE CAPITOL
Architect: McKim, Mead, and White 

The dome of the State House is the fourth-largest self-supporting marble dome in the world, after St. Peter's Basilica, the Minnesota State Capitol, and the Taj Mahal. On top of the dome is a gold-covered bronze statue of the Independent Man, originally named "Hope."

Independent Man represents freedom and independence and alludes to the independent spirit which led Roger Williams to settle and establish Providence and later Rhode Island. 



The Rhode Island State Capitol is one of the first public buildings to use electricity, the Rhode Island State House is lit by 109 floodlights and two searchlights at night. - wikipedia


SOUTH CAROLINA STATE CAPITOL
Architect: John R. Niernsee

The building's grounds are home to several monuments. On the north side is a monument to South Carolina's Confederate dead, a monument that includes a flagpole flying a traditional version of the Confederate battle flag. The monument was established after a controversy during the U.S. presidential campaign of 2000 about the Confederate flag flying over the dome of the State House.The flag, originally placed over the dome in 1962, was moved to its present location on July 1, 2000. - wikipedia






SOUTH DAKOTA STATE CAPITOL
Architect: C.E. Bell and M.S. Detwiler

The floor in the capitol building is made of terrazzo tile. The floor is said to have been laid by 66 Italian artists. To give these artists a chance to place a mark in the building (without allowing them to actually sign their names to the floor), each is said to have been given a blue stone to place in the floor. - wikipedia 







TENNESSEE STATE CAPITOL
Architect: William Strickland

The American Society of Civil Engineers has listed the building as a civil engineering landmark in recognition of its innovative construction, which made unusually extensive use of stone and was an early example of the use of structural iron. Both the interior and exterior are built with limestone from a quarry about 1 mile (1.6 km) from the site. Some interior columns were built from single pieces of stone, requiring massive wooden derricks to hoist them into place. Wrought iron, instead of wood, was used for the roof trusses to reduce the building's vulnerability to fire. - wikipedia






TEXAS STATE CAPITOL
Architect : Elijah E. Myers

The Texas State Capitol was ranked ninety-second in the "America's Favorite Architecture" poll commissioned by the American Institute of Architects, that ranked the top 150 favorite architectural projects in America as of 2007. In a 2008 poll by the AIA, it was also ranked the number-one state capitol. - wikipedia






UTAH STATE CAPITOL
Architect: Richard K.A. Kletting

The capitol's architect was inspired by Classical architecture, and some local newspapers compared the early designs to Greece's Parthenon. Many of the building's details rely on the Corinthian style, in which formality, order, proportion and line are essential design elements. - wikipedia






VERMONT STATE CAPITOL
Architect: Ammi B. Young / Thomas Silloway

The dome and roofs were originally painted a dark terracotta red to suggest Tuscan tile. The dome was not gilded until the early 20th century, when many states did so as a part of the Colonial Revival style. The dome is topped by a statue named Agriculture, a representation of Ceres, an ancient Roman goddess of agriculture. The original statue was carved by Vermont artist Larkin Goldsmith Mead, who also carved the large bust of Lincoln in the Hall of Inscriptions on the State House's ground floor. The current statue is a replacement, and something of a piece of folk art, based on Mead's original. - wikpedia






VIRGINIA STATE CAPITOL
Architect: Thomas Jefferson and Charles Louis Clerisseau

It is one of only eleven capitols in the United States without an external dome. (The others are the capitols of Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Louisiana, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon and Tennessee.) - wikipedia






UNITED STATES CAPITOL
Architect: William Thornton (first of many)

In its early days, the Capitol building was not only used for governmental functions. On Sundays, church services were regularly held there - a practice that continued until after the Civil War. According to the US Library of Congress exhibit "Religion and the Founding of the American Republic" "It is no exaggeration to say that on Sundays in Washington during the administrations of Thomas Jefferson (1801–1809) and of James Madison (1809–1817) the state became a church. Within a year of his inauguration, Jefferson began attending church services in the House of Representatives. Madison followed Jefferson's example, although unlike Jefferson, who rode on horseback to church in the Capitol, Madison came in a coach and four. Worship services in the House—a practice that continued until after the Civil War—were acceptable to Jefferson because they were nondiscriminatory and voluntary. Preachers of every Protestant denomination appeared. (Catholic priests began officiating in 1826.)" - wikipedia






WASHINGTON STATE CAPITOL
Architect: Walter R. Wilder, Harry K. White

On the north facade, the entrance is in a portico framed by eight Corinthian columns reached by 42 granite steps. A similar portico is on the south facade but it covers a vehicle ramp to the lower level instead of steps. The dome is surrounded by four small sandstone domes and capped by a lantern and lightning rod. - wikipedia






WEST VIRGINIA STATE CAPITOL
Architect: Cass Gilbert 

The front of the building faces the Kanawha River, and the entire capitol plaza is bordered by Kanawha Boulevard East.  At a height of 292 feet (89 m), the State Capitol is the tallest building in West Virginia. - wikipedia 





WISCONSIN STATE CAPITOL
Architect: George B. Post
The Capitol recently experienced a 14-year renovation and restoration project.  The project was performed wing by wing as per the original construction of the Capitol.  The renovation started during 1988 and was completed during 2002 at a cost of $ 158.8 million.  The purpose of the project was to convert the Capitol into a modern working building, while restoring and preserving its original 1917 appearance. - wikipedia


 



WYOMING STATE CAPITOL
Architect: David W. Gibbs and William DuBois

The architecture of the building is renaissance revival, reminiscent of the National Capitol Building in Washington, D.C. The building's cornerstone was laid on May 18, 1887, with maps, a roster of territorial officers and other papers inside. During the Centennial of the Capitol in 1987; the cornerstone was removed, these documents were replaced and the cornerstone reset. - wikipedia
 



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